YELLOW FEVER VACCINE
Yellow Fever vaccine prevents against Yellow Fever, a viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the transmission of a flavivirus through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms of Yellow Fever can range from asymptomatic, to mild flu-like illness, to more severe symptoms such as shock, jaundice, internal bleeding, and organ failure . Interestingly, Yellow Fever got its name from the characteristic yellowing of the skin and eyes that occurs from the development of jaundice when the virus attacks the liver. Although there is supportive treatment available for managing Yellow Fever, there are currently no antivirals developed to specifically treat Yellow Fever. Vaccination with Yellow Fever vaccine is therefore considered to be the most important and effective measure to protect against Yellow Fever, with protective immunity developing within 10 days after vaccination; in two separate clinical trials of Yellow Fever Vaccine, 90% of subjects seroconverted within 10 days after vaccination, and 100% of subjects seroconverted within 14 days [Label]. The World Health Organization no longer recommends the use of a 10-year booster dose following primary immunization, as a single dose is "sufficient to confer life-long immunity against yellow fever disease" .
Yellow Fever is most commonly found in the southern hemisphere, in tropical regions of Africa and Central/South America . The World Health Organization recommends routine vaccination in countries where Yellow Fever is endemic, and for travellers going to endemic areas as proof of vaccination is often a requirement at border crossings to prevent international spread of the disease [2, 5].
Yellow Fever Vaccine is a subcutaneously administered vaccination for the active immunization and prophylaxis of yellow fever in pediatric patients 9 months of age and older. It is composed of two live, attenuated strains of yellow fever virus, 17D-204 and 17DD, which have been shown to elicit an immune response identical to that induced by wild-type infection [Label]. The FDA recommends vaccination with Yellow Fever Vaccine for persons living in or travelling to endemic areas and for laboratory personnel who handle virulent yellow fever virus or concentrated preparations of the yellow fever vaccine virus.
- Flavivirus yellow fever virus 17D-204 whole
- Yellow fever virus strain 17D-204 live antigen
- Yellow fever, live attenuated
Yellow Fever Vaccine is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of yellow fever in persons 9 months of age and older in the following categories:
Persons Living in or Traveling to Endemic Areas: While the actual risk for contracting yellow fever during travel is probably low, variability of itineraries, behaviors and seasonal incidence of disease make it difficult to predict the actual risk for a given individual living in or traveling to a known endemic or epidemic area. Greater risk is associated with living in or traveling to areas of South America and Africa where yellow fever infection is officially reported at the time of travel and with traveling outside the urban areas of countries that do not officially report the disease but that lie in a yellow fever endemic zone.
Persons Travelling Internationally Through Countries with Yellow Fever: Some countries require an individual to have a valid International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) if the individual has been in countries either known or thought to harbor yellow fever virus. The certificate becomes valid 10 days after vaccination with Yellow Fever Vaccine.
Laboratory Personnel: Laboratory personnel who handle virulent yellow fever virus or concentrated preparations of the yellow fever vaccine virus strains may be at risk of exposure by direct or indirect contact or by aerosols.
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